Wednesday, 26 December 2012

This is Very Good Tips For Dummies in Techno

Techno Guide tips stated that techno is the term that was best recognized my lay people who were not yet familiar with the electronic music revolution. Everything synthetic was referred to as ‘techno’. The misused term today has changed though, and is now ‘trance’ or worse yet ‘tiesto’. below is a good articel about techno music if you want  to learn about tehno more deeply. please check the original site it is very goof
The Detroit of The First Wave
Detroit, a decade on from the riots, had begun its de-population process, falling from the mid-century highpoint of nearly 2 million to its current, paltry 700,000 and earned its title as “America’s Homicide Capital.” The worst area of the city was the poverty-stricken centre, while the suburbs remained solidly middle class. This was due in part to a government led de-centralisation process that started after the second World War II and was dubbed “The White Flight” after the mass exodus that followed in the wake of the unrest during the late 60s. Even amongst the growing number factories and companies closing, almost all families in the greater Detroit area were still somehow tied to the automobile industry in some way. The kids of this generation grew up listening to their parents tell them about the robots that were being shipped into replace them and how they aided in mass production. Technology was an omnipresent, mythological force that was greeted both with suspicion and the hope that it might provide a road towards salvation.
The Importance Of Radio
Radio was central in bringing the world to the city’s youths, and there was one particular DJ that was transfixing the population with Parliament Funkadelic and the underground electro sounds of New York’s harsh funk alongside italo-disco sounds and robot music of Kraftwerkfrom Europe. The Electrifying Mojo, whose eclectic shows embraced Prince, Klein & MBOYMO, and all other forms of mechanical soul and mixed them up with sense of foreboding and edge which captured the current state of The Motor City perfectly. The masses may have been dancing to disco in New York City, and the underground of Chicago was embracing the warmth within its burgeoning house movement, but there was nothing to celebrate here in a city fraught with decay and corruption. It was songs about automobiles from Kraftwerk, the twisted and manipulated vocals of Yello, and the caustic rhythms uniting all of these genres that came purely from machines that resonated and caught on amongst the city’s clubs and young creatives.
The Belleville Three
Three teenagers, attending the same high school in the suburb of Belleville, had caught the bug from The Electrifying Mojo and started playing records at parties while exploring the primitive synthesizers of the time. The oldest, Juan ‘The Originator’ Atkins, was the first to get turntables and taught his friends how to DJ as well as being the first to dabble with music creation. One of his university class-mates, Richard Davies, turned him onto the writings of futurist Alvin Toffler which inspired the two to release reverential, futuristic music that, like Kraftwerk, celebrated the link between the man and the machine. In 1981 they released Alleys Of Your Mind asCybotron;) full of Funkadelic-inspired rhythms, but with the hypnotic bleakness of underground music from Europe. Cybotron released a few more seminal records until Juan Atkins started on his own as Model 500, which saw the electro side of Cybotron give way to an entirely new sound that still fused the same influences together, but in an altogether different way. Sung vocal lines and silky chords gave way to snarling synth leads and simplistic percussive motifs that was still rooted in boogie, but had been relegated from its stance as a forefront sonic mascot in Cybotron to a whispered influence. Model 500 dug darker and deeper; the playfulness of Atkins and Davies’ joint output gave way to a more focused, honed sound that wielded a much sharper and refined blade emotionally, thematically, and musically. Another member of the Belleville Three, Derrick May) famously wrote in the liner notes of a 1988 compilation: “The music is just like Detroit, a complete mistake. It’s like George Clinton and Kraftwerk are stuck in an elevator with only a sequencer to keep them company.”
Derrick “The Innovator” May had been watching Atkins make the transition from Cybotron to Model 500, and finessed the sound within in his own productions into what most people often associate as being Detroit techno. If Juan had built the foundations, then Derrick designed and built the house. He designed the final template that solidified the first wave through early tracks likeStrings Of LifeIt Is What It Is, and _The Dance. May’s productions were all but stripped of electro-funk and focused on hypnotic, pulsing beats that ebbed and flowed via slow and subtle changes in a way more akin to classical music’s minimalism movement than anything else. He also introduced the wistful string-like pads outlining minor seventh chords that became a staple of the genre’s sound; forgoing aggression for a haunting sadness that sounds as otherworldly as it does deep and almost spiritual.
Kevin “The Elevator” Saunderson, the youngest of the group, found a way to get the first wave out to the masses. He started producing after the other two and fused pop-style productions with the sounds that Derrick and Juan had created. This happened most notably with the group Inner City) and their absolute, stone cold hits like Good Thing and Big Fun._ His productions, full of humanism and warmth, were also a hint of the inclusion of house music that was to come in the second wave since they didn’t, and still don’t, fit neatly under the techno sound. A fourth attendee of Belleville High, though not considered part of the three that launched the genre was Eddie Fowlkes who came back to music after finishing a business degree and was instrumental to the scene at the time.
Detroit hustles harder: the rise of the independent label
Besides the sound coming out of Detroit at the time, the other striking difference in this new musical culture was born out of two pillars that sum up the Motor City: the need for independence and the hustle. The American Dream had failed the population so they looked to new self-reliant ways to overcome their realities, and with a slippery line between the middle class and the abject poverty that was corroding the city from the inside out, you had to hustle hard in order to keep from falling in. This is where the rise of independent record labels and distribution came in. It wasn’t just one small dance music label that had sprung up, everyone making music at the time had their own label. Juan Atkins’ Metroplex label was the first of the bunch and set an example to his Belleville Three colleagues and fellow creatives that they didn’t need support from anyone else anymore if they were willing to do this side of the music industry themselves. Thus Derrick May’s Transmat (which the sublime strings Of Life, below, was released on) and Kevin Saunderson’s KMS record labels soon sprung up afterwards, and just about every single producer of every wave of Detroit Electronic Music has carried the notions independence and the hustle forward by releasing on and owning their own record labels.
Treading Dangerous Ground: The Club Scene At The Time
The hustle also spread into scene at the time and into the way that the youths got involved with this new music coming out of their hometown. Local TV programmes like The Scene and The New Dance Show aired afterschool on weekdays and provided a place for all to participate in dance-offs to the latest beats. In the early days, most of the music on these two shows was funk and R&B, but by 1982 the machines started to take over as the show started playing another local proto-techno track that popped up around the same time as early Cybotron: ShareVari by A Number Of Names. It wasn’t long before Juan Atkins, under his Channel One moniker, was getting his tracks aired on The Scene as well. The style of dance at the time was called the Jit, short for Jitterbug, and was used on the streets by rival gangs to differentiate the parts of the city they came from and sometimes even declare a murder. These moves were appropriated by professional dancers on these television shows in a safe environment.
Clubbing on the other hand was a bit more shambolic as any and every venue was used as a place to set up turntables and soundsystems: churches, vacant car parks, YMCAs, underage nights at the local High School, and more. Alcohol was often not present at these events since they couldn’t legally serve it, and people from both the inner city and suburbs came together to showcase their own take on the Jit, fueled only by sugary fruit juices and soda pops. These dance-offs by the mostly black crowd were some of the few moments when the middle class suburban kids and various gangs tried to mix and would quite often erupt in violence and shootings. On a good night the various groups would be showcasing their best moves and learning from each other. However, if the gangs started Stacking, their battle-call appropriation of Jitting that flashed their rival’s signs in the air and mimed shooting them down, the party was over. Gone were the Motown times of consistently peaceful and integrated nightlife; those days came from a prosperous era that had ended a long time ago and the nightlife, just like the music, echoed the struggles and suffering that plagued the Detroit’s youth.
The drive to keep holding these parties, and even setting up DJ and dancing competitions to serve as positive outlets of expression, is also a testament to the hustle and future-facing tunnel-vision the Belleville Three and co had at the time with the music they were trying to make. Looking forward was their only means of escaping the post-industrial wasteland they lived in, but they wanted to do so while retaining a fierce sense of pride for their city. Perhaps technology had aided in the destruction of their home, but it was also their saviour; their only crack at social movement or their car in which they could drive through the city at night and feel the empowering sense of escapism that most Detroit natives still refer to when talking about their automobiles. Instead of fearing the possibility of a 1984 or Brave New World, they attempted to avoid it by creating a harmony between themselves and their machines in the only way they knew how: through music.
Of course no guide can be definitive or absolute (especially in so few words,) but we hope there was something in the above that resonated in the same way Detroit’s beautiful electronic music still does today. We’ll look at the how these experiments in technological dance music exploded into the world in the next part of this guide, but for now close your eyes and feel The Motor City’s extreme highs and lows channelled via Derrick May’s sublime Strings Of Life.

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Stuxnet Returns

Stuxnet Returns

We all know, Iranian media report Iran's nuclear enrichment efforts were hit hard in 2010 by the Stuxnet worm, which was also blamed for problems at industrial plants and factories. Again Tehran accused Israel and the US of planting the malware in their infrastructure. In 2010, Iran accused the West of trying to disrupt its nuclear facilities with the Stuxnet worm.Researchers estimated that five industrial processing organisations in Iran were hit repeatedly between June 2009 and April 2010 by the worm which they believed had been created by a "nation state" in the West.
Despite the problem and danger behind the cyber attack, Government of iran has regularly claimed success in defeating those computer viruses, such as Stuxnet and Flame, which have affected its industries. The malware attack on Iran's oil ministry and national oil company in april are forcing the government to disconnect key oil facilities, including the Kharg Island oil terminal that handles most of Tehran's exports and of course Iran lost a lot because of this malware attack.
During 2011,again  Iran said some of its computer systems were infected by another spyware. The spyware was believed to have been designed to steal important dataand the worst was the objectives of this spyware was to help launching further cyber attacks on Iran. This spyware lately known as Duqu spyware. The attacks have affected its energy exports as well as its controversial uranium enrichment programme, which Western countries suspect is aimed at constructing nuclear weapons. Tehran insists it is solely for peaceful purposes.
The biggest cyber attack so far was from the Stuxnet worm, which believed to be the first known virus specifically targeted at infrastructure facilities such as power stations. Iran said centrifuges used in uranium enrichment had been sabotaged and the UN nuclear watchdog said the enrichment programme had been temporarily brought to a halt. Reports suggested that the worm had infected the personal computers of staff at Iran's first nuclear power station at Bushehr.In September this year, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu told the United Nations General Assembly that time was running out to stop Tehran having enough enriched uranium to build a nuclear bomb. To summarize this let's see this time series of cyber attack in the iran.
  • Stuxnet worm hits Iranian centrifuges - from mid-2009 to late 2010
  • Iran complains facilities hit by Stars malware - April 2011
  • Duqu trojan hits Iran's computer systems - November 2011
  • Flame virus targets computers in PCs across the Middle East, including Iran and Israel - June 2012
  • Iran says Stuxnet worm returns - December 2012
In Conclusion, it is clear that even now, the iranian government have been in a constant attack of cyber malware, in my opinion the attack was probably designed to disrupt the iranian activities and of course it was because the fear of another countries if the iran have the bomb and would change the power stability in the middle east

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Tuesday, 25 December 2012

The History of Technology

The History Of Technology

Many sociologists and anthropologists have created social theories dealing with social and cultural evolution. Some, like Lewis H. Morgan, Leslie White, and Gerhard Lenski, declare technological progress to be the primary factor driving the development of human civilization. Morgan's concept of three major stages of social evolution (savagery, barbarism, and civilization) can be divided by technological milestones, such as fire, the bow, and pottery in the savage era, domestication of animals, agriculture, and metalworking in the barbarian era and the alphabet and writing in the civilization era.
Instead of specific inventions, White decided that the measure by which to judge the evolution of culture was energy. For White "the primary function of culture" is to "harness and control energy." White differentiates between five stages of human development: In the first, people use energy of their own muscles. In the second, they use energy of domesticated animals. In the third, they use the energy of plants (agricultural revolution). In the fourth, they learn to use the energy of natural resources: coal, oil, gas. In the fifth, they harness nuclear energy. White introduced a formula P=E*T, where E is a measure of energy consumed, and T is the measure of efficiency of technical factors utilizing the energy. In his own words, "culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year is increased, or as the efficiency of the instrumental means of putting the energy to work is increased". Russian astronomer, Nikolai Kardashev, extrapolated his theory creating the Kardashev scale, which categorizes the energy use of advanced civilizations.
Lenski takes a more modern approach and focuses on information. The more information and knowledge (especially allowing the shaping of natural environment) a given society has, the more advanced it is. He identifies four stages of human development, based on advances in the history of communication. In the first stage, information is passed by genes. In the second, when humans gain sentience, they can learn and pass information through by experience. In the third, the humans start using signs and develop logic. In the fourth, they can create symbols, develop language and writing. Advancements in the technology of communication translates into advancements in the economic system and political system, distribution of wealth, social inequality and other spheres of social life. He also differentiates societies based on their level of technology, communication and economy:
1)    hunters and gatherers,
2)   simple agricultural,
3)   advanced agricultural,
4)  industrial,
5)   special (such as fishing societies).
During the Paleolithic Age, all humans had a lifestyle which involved limited use of tools and few permanent settlements. The first major technologies, then, were tied to survival, hunting, and food preparation in this environment. Fire, stone tools and weapons, and clothing were technological developments of major importance during this period. Stone Age cultures developed music, and engaged in organized warfare. A subset of Stone Age humans, includingNgaro Aborigines, developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe technology, leading to an eastward migration across the Malay archipelago, across the Indian ocean to Madagascar and also across the Pacific Ocean, which required knowledge of the ocean currents, weather patterns, sailing, celestial navigation, and star maps.
The early Stone Age is described as Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic. The former is generally used to describe the early Stone Age in areas with limited glacial impact. The later Stone Age, during which the rudiments of agricultural technology were developed, is called the Neolithic period. During this period, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks such as flint, jade, jadeite and greenstone, largely by working exposures as quarries, but later the valuable rocks were pursued by tunnelling underground, the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were used for forest clearance and the establishment of crop farming, and were so effective as to remain in use when bronze and iron appeared.
Although Paleolithic cultures left no written records, the shift from nomadic life to settlement and agriculture can be inferred from a range of archaeological evidence. Such evidence includes ancient tools,[1] cave paintings, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf. Human remains also provide direct evidence, both through the examination of bones, and the study ofmummies. Though concrete evidence is limited, scientists and historians have been able to form significant inferences about the lifestyle and culture of various prehistoric peoples, and the role technology played in their lives.
The Stone Age developed into the Bronze Age after the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Revolution involved radical changes in agricultural technology which included development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. These combined factors made possible the development of metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of choice, although polished stone tools continued to be used for a considerable time owing to their abundance compared with the less common metals (especially tin).
This technological trend apparently began in the Fertile Crescent, and spread outward over time. These developments were not, and still are not, universal. The Three-age system does not accurately describe the technology history of groups outside of Eurasia, and does not apply at all in the case of some isolated populations, such as the Spinifex People, the Sentinelese, and various Amazonian tribes, which still make use of Stone Age technology, and have not developed agricultural or metal technology.
The Iron Age involved the adoption of iron smelting technology. It generally replaced bronze, and made it possible to produce tools which were stronger, lighter and cheaper to make than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last major step before the development of written language, though again this was not universally the case. It was not possible to mass manufacture steel because high furnace temperatures were needed, but steel could be produced by forging bloomery iron to reduce the carbon content in a controllable way. Iron ores were much more widespread than either copper or tin. In Europe, large hill forts were built either as a refuge in time of war, or sometimes as permanent settlements. In some cases, existing forts from the Bronze Age were expanded and enlarged. The pace of land clearance using the more effective iron axes increased, providing more farmland to support the growing population.
It was the growth of the ancient civilizations which produced the greatest advances in technology and engineering, advances which stimulated other societies to adopt new ways of living and governance.
The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. The Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Ancient India was also at the forefront of seafaring technology—a panel found at Mohenjodaro, depicts a sailing craft. Indian construction and architecture, called 'Vaastu Shastra', suggests a thorough understanding of materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation.
The Chinese were responsible for numerous technology discoveries and developments. Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectors, matches, paper, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the parachute[citation needed], natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder.
Greek and Hellenistic engineers were responsible for myriad inventions and improvements to existing technology. The Hellenistic period in particular saw a sharp increase in technological advancement, fostered by a climate of openness to new ideas, the blossoming of a mechanistic philosophy, and the establishment of the Library of Alexandria and its close association with the adjacent museion. In contrast to the typically anonymous inventors of earlier ages, ingenious minds such as Archimedes, Philo of Byzantium, Heron, Ctesibius, and Archytas remain known by name to posterity.
Ancient Greek innovations were particularly pronounced in mechanical technology, including the ground-breaking invention of the watermill which constituted the first human-devised motive force not to rely on muscle labour (besides the sail). Apart from their pioneering use of waterpower, Greek inventors were also the first to experiment with wind power (see Heron's windwheel) and even created the earliest steam engine (the aeolipile), opening up entirely new possibilities in harnessing natural forces whose full potential would not be exploited until the industrial revolution. The newly devised right-angled gear and screw would become particularly important to the operation of mechanical devices.
Ancient agriculture, as in any period prior to the modern age the primary mode of production and subsistence, and its irrigation methods were considerably advanced by the invention and widespread application of a number of previously unknown water-lifting devices, such as the vertical water-wheel, the compartmented wheel, the water turbine, Archimedes screw, the bucket-chain and pot-garland, the force pump, the suction pump, the double-action piston pump and quite possibly the chain pump.[2]
In music, water organ, invented by Ctesibius and subsequently improved, constituted the earliest instance of a keyboard instrument. In time-keeping, the introduction of the inflow clepsydra and its mechanization by the dial and pointer, the application of a feedback system and the escapement mechanism far superseded the earlier outflow clepsydra.
The famous Antikythera mechanism, a kind of analogous computer working with a differential gear, and the astrolabe show great refinement in the astronomical science.
Greek engineers were also the first to devise automaton such as vending machines, suspended ink pots, automatic washstands and doors, primarily as toys, which however featured many new useful mechanisms such as the cam and gimbals.
In other fields, ancient Greek inventions include the catapult and the gastraphetes crossbow in warfare, hollow bronze-casting in metallurgy, the dioptra for surveying, in infrastructure the lighthouse, central heating, the tunnel excavated from both ends by scientific calculations, the ship trackway, the dry dock and plumbing. In horizontal vertical and transport great progress resulted from the invention of the crane, the winch, the wheelbarrow and the odometer.Further newly created techniques and items were spiral staircases, the chain drive, sliding calipers and showers.
The Romans developed an intensive and sophisticated agriculture, expanded upon existing iron working technology, created laws providing for individual ownership, advanced stone masonry technology, advanced road-building (exceeded only in the 19th century), military engineering, civil engineering, spinning and weaving and several different machines like the Gallic reaper that helped to increase productivity in many sectors of the Roman economy. Roman engineers were the first to build monumental arches, amphitheatres, aqueducts, public baths, true arch bridges, harbours, reservoirs and dams, vaults and domes on a very large scale across their Empire. Notable Roman inventions include the book (Codex), glass blowing and concrete. Because Rome was located on a volcanic peninsula, with sand which contained suitable crystalline grains, the concrete which the Romans formulated was especially durable. Some of their buildings have lasted 2000 years, to the present day.
The engineering skills of the Inca and the Mayans were great, even by today's standards. An example is the use of pieces weighing in upwards of one ton in their stonework placed together so that not even a blade can fit in-between the cracks. The villages used irrigation canals and drainage systems, making agriculture very efficient. While some claim that the Incas were the first inventors of hydroponics, their agricultural technology was still soil based, if advanced. Though the Maya civilization had no metallurgy or wheel technology, they developed complex writing and astrological systems, and created sculptural works in stone and flint. Like the Inca, the Maya also had command of fairly advanced agricultural and construction technology. Throughout this time period much of this construction, was made only by women, as men of the Maya civilization believed that females were responsible for the creation of new things. The main contribution of the Aztec rule was a system of communications between the conquered cities. In Mesoamerica, without draft animals for transport (nor, as a result, wheeled vehicles), the roads were designed for travel on foot, just like the Inca and Mayan civilizations.
Historians differ in their opinions of when the Middle Ages began and ended, most sources define the Middle Ages as an historical period from 500 AD to 1450 AD. While there was a suppression of knowledge and learning, the Middle Ages was a period full of discovery and inventing
The 15th century gave birth to three major events: the beginning of the Renaissance Era (circa 1453) with a return to research and learning after the Dark Ages; the birth of the Age of Discovery with increased exploration and improved naval ships and navigation methods that created new trade routes and trade partners; and the birth of modern printing marked by 15th century master printer Johann Gutenberg's invention of movable type presses (1440) that made the inexpensive mass-printing of books possible.
The 16th century was a time of unprecedented change, the very beginning of the modern era of science, a time of great exploration, religious and political urmoil, and extraordinary literature. During the 17th century major changes in philosophy and science took place. Before the 17th century began, science and scientists were not truly recognized. In fact, at first people like the 17th century genius Isaac Newton were called natural philosophers, since there was no concept of the word scientist for most of the 17th century.
The 18th century (also referred to as the 1700s) began the first Industrial Revolution. Modern manufacturing began with steam engines replacing animal labor. The 18th century saw the widespread replacement of manual labor by new inventions and machinery The 19th century was the age of machine tools - tools that made tools - machines that made parts for other machines, including interchangeable parts. The assembly line was invented during the 19th century, speeding up the factory production of consumer goods.

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